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"Preserve the old, but Know the new" -- Ancient Chinese Proverb

A Network for Trees and their Friends

NEWSLETTER #11 — FALL 1987

Our mailing list includes people from all backgrounds who would like to learn more about what to plant in a full range of landscapes. These subscribers comprise, in effect, our 'membership'. I'm going to single out one person here, in an attempt to illustrate how others could get involved in this network. (Pardon us, Jim, for putting you in the limelight, we hope you keep up your individual effort.)

Jim Greenlaw lives in Augusta and has been experimenting with backyard fruit growing for several years now. I met Jim at our first scion exchange. His interest, at a 'hobby' level was keen—just the type that could be helped by an exchange of scions, information and encouragement. Jim had something to share from the beginning. Somehow, I readily connect him with the plum variety—Waneta. Over the years, Jim's made available a good many scions of this plum for others to take home, graft and enjoy. Indeed, if this variety gets any widespread circulation in the state—Jim may very well have had a good hand in it. Some people would like to defer credit to us for initiating the exchanges, but frankly, without folks like him, we'd have accomplished very little to date. So to Jim and all the others who are taking time to pass on their scions, skill or inspiration—our sincere thanks. They understand what this network represents. Their deeds while seemingly insignificant now, could be a substantial contribution to the future. Perhaps their example can be a motivating factor in the course of your own actions.

We hope you've had an opportunity to do some plant exploring and collecting. If not, there's still araole time left to this harvest season. Please share your discoveries with us at the exchange or pass along your good fortune to a friend.

We add these further comments about this January's NOFA-FLO Low Spray Apple Production Conference from the notes of another Maine attendee - Jim Gerritsen.

In a discussion about ground covers for orchards, some people favored sod for improving overall taste, storage and quality of fruit—though admitting to reduced size. Legumes were mentioned as possibly providing too much nitrogen (when mowed) and causing winter hardiness problems. An alternate mix that was recommended was 20% Ensylva red fescue and 80% Elka perennial ryegrass. It is available from Peaceful Valley Farm Supply, Nevada City, CA 95959 for $63 per 40 lbs. NOTE: Proceedings from this conference will unlikely be published due to lack of significant funding.

JOIN US FOR OUR
FAIL FRUIT, NUT AND SEED EXCHANGE
SUNDAY OCTOBER 18th
NOON TO 5 UNITY COLLEGE IN UNITY

FUTURE TREE CROPS SEMINAR

We'd like to get down to the serious business of discussing plants, landscape ideas, backyard 'orchards and the like—in a series of day long workshops. Things could get rolling later this fall or emerge in the Spring in conjunction with activities at Unity College. If you'd like to take part—please send us your ideas of possible topics or speakers, and your level of interest. We feel that such a program would be a refreshing change for most of us already involved and could excite new faces too. No promises on this one—your input will likely be a deciding factor on whether or not anything occurs.

1987 SCIONWOOD EXCHANGE REPORT

This one came off with a hitch or two: workshops got juggled when power was temporarily lost and only a small percentage of people attending registered. There was even a noticeable lack of familiar faces. We'll concede that it was an exceptionally fine day (the weather over-cooperated) and publicity of this event was late. But also absent were a few favorite varieties—in any quantity. In the future we hope you'll continue to cone and share these simple gifts with us all.

What follows are my scanty notes from a workshop on varieties that I moderated and a quick summation of other activities. We'd like to hear more of what you enjoyed (or didn't)—to be able to compile a more complete report and to help plan future exchanges. Our apologies go to participants who go unmentioned here. We'd like to thank all who were involved. Special thanks are extended to Dave Patterson and Elaine Clark for their help with the last hour of clean-up.

There were no heated discussions over varieties. Elizabeth Gravelos mentioned that Prima was a good cider apple and Priscilla, though small, developed a good flavor in her New Hampshire orchard, if properly ripened. Steve Page thought Liberty has a very good flavor. There was a certain amount of discussion about older varieties too, but nothing definitive developed, * NOTE: Host comments went unrecorded; different individuals mentioned their favorites. We'd like to see more discussion on this subject to provide us with a broader perspective on each variety's relative merits. Ditto the following areas.

Sources were briefly mentioned. Some people have had rotten luck ordering from well known nurseries —citing examples of misnamed stock, poor quality trees, or lousy service. We hear similar reports from others and a few companies are repeat offenders. Such reputations are likely to develop. Some possibly unfounded, We'll try and pass along the favorable reports and hope that an informed public can help to mold the integrity of these businesses. Elaine Clark praised Oregon Rootstock for their considerate response to even small requests. (Yeah!)

Rootstock performances were also hit upon, but no concrete evaluations arose. John Bunker recommended burying peach, plum, apricot and standard pears below the graft union to put these fruit on their own rootstock for better hardiness.

Howard Wulf had to be coaxed to stick around and present his views on pears—having just returned from a dismal first Spring visit to his own orchard. Nevertheless, he received many favorable comments from the audience. Winter injury that his trees sustained was probably instigated by slow growth during the previous season and prolonged growth in the fall. Competition from (an under-mulched) sod may have stunted early growth. Later, decomposition of the mulch may have delayed dormancy. (NOTE: his approach this year was to apply urea early in the year—a practice recommended by Northern pear growers. Shallow cultivation around the trees was also initiated. His trees appear to be doing better and unlike the apples he set out they've not been ravaged by borers.) Howard says he'll give an 'organized' talk next year. We also hope to have him show his pruning technique on young and older trees in the area.

Dave Patterson mentioned how some people are now recommending that hardy kiwi be container grown or well protected for up to five years—just to get it off to a favorable start in northern conditions.

Roger Luce had little to say, as usual, but we did note a few jaws drop when he mentioned what he's been growing. Then he pulled some wild looking Actinidia from his car and more astonished faces appeared. Some people followed up by visiting his gardens. Impressive is hardly the word to describe the multitude of plants he tends. We hope to encourage him to talk more about his horticultural pursuits, someday. Meanwhile, you owe yourself a visit if you have a serious interest in magnolias, azaleas and... Contact Roger at R# 1, Box 1126, Hampden, 04444—and please be respectful of his time.

From the tables...basket willows seemed to be a popular item—people had to avoid the long shoots being carried around. (Now there may be no stopping the onslaught of these fastigious growers.) John Header's pluracot and Sundrop apricot got snapped up quickly. Will Bonsall brought some unusual apples from his growing collection. Liz Lauer once again had some proven varieties from up north. Mike Crespi took time to bring scions from the Wolf River tree that bore those remarkably clean fruit that he'd exhibited last fall. Dave Patterson and Elaine Clark had on hand wood of several crab apples and a few mountain ash. The contributions of many newcomers as well as regular swappers all helped to make for an enjoyable day. We hope to see you again this fall or next spring.

The following list of previously unrecorded apples (and others) were available as scions this past spring. Added to the 113 varieties offered last year - things are really shaping up. We're certain we missed a few though, and we're still far from having an accurate picture of what's growing out there. Please help us out at future exchanges by submitting a list of what you bring. Our thanks to those of you who already have done so: Gideon, Bullock, Champlain, Crimson Beauty, Wismer, McClellon, Sutton, Orange Sweet, Twenty Ounce, Lodi, Fireside, Haralson, Coles Quince, Breault's Windsor, Kimball Mac, Sops of Wine, Fameuse, Bancroft, English Russet, Williams Favorite, Kidd's Orange Red, Yellow Transparent, Tolman Sweet.


Lew Ward is an active tree crop devotee gaining recognition for his networking in New York State and around the country. He is currently one of NAFEX's mulberry testers and was our host last January for the NOFA-FLO conference (which he co-chaired). He attended this summer's Sunny Ridge Tree Crops Conference and has supplied us a report of the weekend's activities. With no space for even a summation here—we note that some positive north/south ties are likely to develop. Perhaps most importantly, fellow enthusiasts set up the Eastern Tree Crops Institute of North America (ETCINA). (For a full report, we expect to have copies of Lew's report available soon, please let us know if you're interested.)


Plastic nursery pots aren't cheap and for anyone dabbling in small scale plant production we raention the following used sources: your local dump...have your dump attendant save these for you; cemeteries...another outlet; talk with a member of the grounds crew.

PLANT PROFILE

Common Name: American Chestnut
Scientific Name: Castanea dentata
Origin: North America
Minimum Temperature Range: -40 degrees F (?)
Plant Habit: Tall, straight-boled tree.
Growth Rate: Fast.
Size at Maturity: 80-100 feet.
Soil Tolerance: Somewhat acid, in-fertile soil preferred.
Ease of Transplanting: Need extra initial care.
Propagation: seed, blighted trees generally die then send out suckers and the cycle gets repeated usually before seed develops
Pollination: cross pollinated by wind
Edible Parts: Small nuts encased in a spiny burr, averaging about 100 per pound
. Food Value: about 40% carbohydrate, 10% protein, 2%. fat.
Bearing Age: about 8 years Yields: undetermined; crops annually
Wood/Utility: One of the most versatile woods known, decay resistant, easily worked, finishes nicely.
Pests: mostly woodcutters now.

Researchers:
Many years of work by Dick Jaynes at the Connecticut Experiment Station involved looking for a way to establish a hypovirulent strain of the Chestnut Blight. We understand this position was recently terminated.

Brian Caldwell, Box 63, West Danby, NY 14894 is currently head chestnut tester for NAFEX.

Wexler County Soil Conservation District, 3040 U. 13th St., Cadillac, MI 49601 has a program to promote the collection and planting of seed found in NW Michigan. The area may contain many isolated trees, or the hypovirulent organisms nay be keeping the disease in check. One year old seedlings are sold for $1.00 each in an effort to get these trees distributed throughout the area.

A chestnut breeding project is underway at the University of Minnesota. Contact: Charles Burnham, Coordinator, 1539 Branston St., St. Paul, MN 55108. Seed and pollen from native or hybrid trees are requested. The American Chestnut Foundation, c/o Dr. David French, Dept. of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 offers a journal of current research work. A $15 annual membership enrolls you in this non-profit organization.

Notes: It's been difficult to find out much about who's doing any sort of work with American Chestnut in this state. Maine could prove to be a rewarding place to look for resistant trees. If seeds are being produced—what are they worth? We'll continue to try to unravel the mystery of this not to be forgotten tree. Please drop us a note of any contact that you may uncover.

Area Trees: We hear frequent reports of large living trees. Some of these are producing viable seed (remember it takes two to tango) so there are undoubtedly more around. The largest on record in the state blew down as of last year. The Rockport grove at Harkness Preserve may have seen some recent losses. Nuts from a tree in Bradford were exhibited at the 1986 Common Ground Fair. Others will go nameless simply because no one's been keeping records or doing follow up on reported sightings.

Sources:
St. Lawrence Nurseries, RD 2, Potsdam, NY 13674. Seedlings of blight resistant trees.

G.P. Welles Thurber, Box 304, Rockport, 04856, Seedlings of local trees.

Walnut Plantations, 3030 Isle View Road, Grand Rapids, MN, 35744. Seed from blight free trees.

Will Bonsall, RFD 1, Box 121, Farmington, ME 04938, Seedlings from seed offered by Walnut Plantations.

Stronghold Inc., Rt. 1, Dickerson, MD 20753.Seed and Seedlings from blight resistant trees.

HYBRID CHESTNUTS
There's been a certain amount of work in this state for a good number of years with crosses of native and introduced species of chestnuts. How much work, by whom and with what—are details that are still unclear to me. Nevertheless, these hybrids and their offspring are out there and deserve more than casual interest.

Louis Lipovsky (RFD 1, Church Rd, Brunswick, 04011) has probably the longest association with these trees. Some of the earliest progeny that he spread around are now bearing. The ones cared for by Doug Stark at the Forest Service Entomology Lab in Augusta have produced several crops already and exhibit a strong, spire like stature. We'll try and secure nuts from another promising 8 year old tree in the Augusta area and observe some of its siblings. Seedlings of American and Korean Chestnut crosses may be available in 1988 from Maine Hardy Nurseries, Box 1090, Buckfield, 04220. And the local list probably goes on.

Earl Douglas, Red Creek, NY 13143 offers an assortment of Manchurian and hybrid nuts and sells seedlings too. Then there's the Dunstan hybrid chestnut offered by Chestnut Hill Nursery Route 1, Box 341, Alachua, FL 32615. It reportedly produces large nuts, bears at young age and is an upright (not bushy) grower and is blight resistant, seedlings are available. (No reports of its adaptability to this area are yet available.)

Nuts from four Chestnuts
Nuts of four chestnut species: a, Chinese: b. Japanese: c, European or Spanish: d. American.

WANTED ALIVE
AMERICAN CHESTNUT
SEED OR SEEDLINGS

Chestnut Cross Section
CONTACT:
Jack Kertesz
Maine Tree Crop Alliance
E.S. Center
Unity College
Unity, Me. 04988

PEAR UPDATE
The following information on pears is taken from a late night and enjoyable conversation with Howard Wulf. Much of his insight cones from careful screening of the literature, and observations from several states, Canada and Europe. We feel it is the most accurate picture on pears we can present at the moment. We hope your response will be to add to this data and to continue to plant some fine pears.

Varieties are grouped in descending order of hardiness. (Top of the list is most hardy.) Varieties within a group shouldn't show much difference in regard to winter injury. Please note the overall order is NOT absolute. Many factors will determine your tree's performance. Choose from higher up the list if you regularly experience temperatures lower then surrounding areas. Please also refer to notes in our previous newsletter to help you make your selection.

Hardiness Ratings for Locally Adapted Pear Varieties

URE - One of the better quality pears for extreme conditions.

SUMMER CRISP - Recent write-up in American Fruit Growers extolls this variety. Did well during 20 years in Montreal. Don't let the name mislead you, this is a fine dessert pear.

PATTEN - Wood remained undamaged following 86/87 winter.*

TA1T-DROPMORE - We're still looking for a commercial source for these.

FLEMISH BEAUTY - Slightly injured in 84/87. *

CLARA FRIJS - Excellent fruit, withstood -30 degrees in Halifax, NS—yet rated for zone 4. Trees at Highmoor Farm have not shown winter pith injury. Scionwood should again be available at our next exchange.

LINCOLN

DOUGLAS

CLAPP'S FAVORITE

TYSON - Not attractive, but a good home variety that is probably being overlooked by many.

VT, BEAUTY - 80 year old tree growing well in NY, once took -35 degree F. Can you help us find a local source for scionwood?

HAGNESS - Should be a reliable cropper for many areas south of Banger, Requires ample pollination.

KE1FFER

D'ANJOU - May not set fruit reliably. Fast grower.

SECKEL

LUSCIOUS - May be hardier than listed here. Survived -40 degrees in South Dakota. Laboratory tests showed early black heart injury when subjected to cold temperatures, yet trees survived longer than others less injured.

BOSC

BARTLETT

Harrow selections (Hw series) have not performed well in this area. While touted as developed in Canada—remember that Harrow Research Station sits on Lake Erie and is probably a mild zone & or 7.

Moonglow performed rather poorly in NY, CT and ME. All of the above probably are better suited for areas where fire blight is a problem.

Black Heart or winter pith injury (xylem ray parchema) is evident on young branches if the center has a dark brown stain. Repeated injury will ultimately kill the tree.

Pear psylla can be kept in check if populations of beneficial insects are encouraged.

* Observations on young trees in North New Portland, ME.

GOURMET PEAR—An Asian-type pear developed by South Dakota University and winter hardy at Brookings, S.D, (zone 4) Should be hardier than Luscious under eastern conditions. Greenish yellow to yellow fruit—this variety is offered by Bailey's Nursery (see listing elsewhere).

Remember that idea of an organized Statewide Pear Search? We never did apply for funding this spring because we couldn't find anyone who could be responsible for coordinating the project. We haven't given it up, though, so if you still have more than a casual interest please contact us. Meanwhile, all of us can get involved by just finding out what's still around our respective neighborhoods. A short note to the editor of your local paper might help to elicit a response. Don't let 'pearapathy' set in; there's still time to uncover a few gems this fall.

What's to be gained from a Pear Search? We note the following varieties mentioned in Yearbooks of Maine Agriculture from the 1880's (Information obtained from 1980 MOFGA article by Tim Nason): Beurre Hardy, Beurre Superfin, Beurre Clairgeau, Beurre Diel, Buffum, Doyenne Boussock, Fulton, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Swan's Orange, Urbaniste, Vicar of Winkfield, Beurre de Brignais, Beurre d'Aremburg, Indian Queen, Harlow, Marra Louise, Goodale, Lawrence, Glout Morceau, Eastern Belle, Howell, Nickerson, Souvenir du Congress, Prat. Brandywine, Osband's Summer.

Eastern Belle; Originated with Henry McLaughlin of Bangor who claimed it was a: moderate grower and perfectly hardy. Fruit of good size, peculiarly rich and spicy, color yellowish, occasionally tinged with red, never rots at the core. Downing rated it as one of the best.

Some of these may still be out there.

We also feel the likes of another Spartlett (a root sucker found on a Bartlett tree) or Vermont Beauty (the original bud graft on this rootstock failed to take and the seedling was allowed to grow) may be lurking out there.

Again, let us know if you can help on this project.

Granny Smith is an apple appreciated by some, but realistically, who's going to grow fruit to maturity in these parts. Most cultivars ripen fruit in mid-November in warmer zones. Even Starks 'Earliee Grannee' requires a 165 day growing season and few of us can expect that, yet alone sufficient heat units to promote ripening. Don't despair if you like green (but edible) apples. A newly released Canadian selection—'Shamrock' is reported to be identical in appearance, texture and taste and stores well too. With parentage of Mclntosh and Golden Delicious, it matures during Mac season. Current restrictions on apple budwood importation will delay its arrival on the US scene. Watch for this unpatented variety in a year or so. As luck would have it, this could prove to be an extremely popular variety.

We expect to have information on the following in our SPRING ISSUE: Plums, Asian Pears, a home orchard plan, IPM supplies (safer pesticides), and other topics. Pitch in and contribute what you know. Give the editor a break.

NOTES FROM THE GRAPE VINE

Not only are the ash and other trees setting a heavy crop of seeds. General Clayton Totman reports having to prop up the branches on his Carpathian Walnuts—they're so full of nuts. This will be the largest crop yet on his trees which began bearing after seven years. We expect a few of these nuts at our fall swap.

Not to be undone and somewhat excitedly, Will Bonsall tells of finding a true English walnut tree bearing in his vicinity. He's also finding good results using black locust as soil and hayland improver. Provided the trees are mowed when young, the rubbery thorns present little problems. Initially, a small grove of locust and various sized suckers were cut back, tops burned and the ashes spread. Now under control, the response of grasses has been significant. Will also uses the succulent locust sprouts as a nitrogenous compost additive. His four year old kiwi vines (some of the oldest of the newly planted plants that we know of), are now over an inch in diameter and quite healthy looking. No blossoms have yet occurred on these plants that appear to have adapted quite well—with no frost damage or die-back problems.

Will has several Western Sand Cherry in his nursery with good size fruit that taste ok, some are a bit puckery. As yet, they're showing no evidence of brown rot, but we'll keep watching. His filberts (which he may have gotten years ago, from Gurney's?) have done exceptionally well and the nuts are larger and much less prone to worm damage than the native species. He'll have rooted cuttings (clones) of his best 2 bushes available for sale next year.

We had a short discussion about growing seedless grapes in the north for home-made raisins and concluded that dried blueberries would make more viable substitutes. [In the latest Pomona*, Lon Ronbough advises freezing grapes for long term storage. If eaten while still partly frozen he claims they're 'better than ice cream'. Freeze any variety of grapes by first washing and desteming them and then packing then into cartons. One major drawback with drying, according to Lon, is that a single vine producing 25-30 Ibs. of grapes will yield only about three lbs. of raisins. As an alternative, he recommends hanging bunches in a cool, dry place for storage of up to three months or more.]

* See Pomona, Summer 1987 issue. If you're still not a member of the North American Fruit Explorers (N.A.F.EX, Rt. 1, Box 94, Chapin, IL 42448, $8/yr.) you're missing out on their very informative quarterly.

Grape enthusiasts are reminded that the Maine Vegetable and Small Fruit Growers Association now includes a subcommittee on grapes. Contact Brad Ronco, RFD 1, Hallowell, 04347 for details. Their most recent newsletter and information packet gleans- ideas from around the country. Also discussed is the status of Highmoor Farm plantings. Don't forget the meeting—Wednesday, September 30th, 5:30 p.m. at Highmoor - Route 202, Monmouth. Contact: John Harker, 289-7420 for details. This will be an excellent opportunity to add your input and to learn the results of this year's crop.

John Meader sends word that the Kimball Mclntosh really deserves more consideration—despite its parentage. This apparent sport, a tetraploid, is quite good in flavor and quality. He also notes that the 'Meador' variety of persimmon now offered by Starks does not appear to be the original Meader selection (a seedless type).

Prone to overlooking the obvious at times, I finally did sample some fruit from a local Russian mulberry tree. It was quite tasty. One of a pair that appears to fruit in alternate years, these 11 year old trees now stand about 25 feet tall and are a nice addition to the landscape.

Our ailing, resident pea shrub has consistently set (and shattered) seed at the end of July. As an element in the design of a poultry enclosure it could provide forage at an opportune time (summer egg laying) and perhaps be interplanted with species that mature seed at other times. Perhaps breeds and plant species could be fine tuned for optimum production of forage and fowl. If you are aware of any such experiments in this or alternate types of tree cropping systems contact: Dr. Peter Henningsen, RR HI, Walton, Nova Scotia, Canada, B0N 2R0. Dr. Henningsen hopes to conduct research in this area and would like to publish his findings.

Local bur oaks seem to be dropping a good crop of acorns just now. In less than an hour's time and with assistance from one other person, we gathered 14 Lbs. of seed. These weighed in at about 200 seeds per pound, as they were snail, so that's a lot of potential trees. Previous years have shown good germinating capacity—we may have collected a future forest in that short moment.

Here are some observations from our home nursery.

Be patient, that's the message several seedlings provided this year. It was nearly July when chestnut, persimmon and some osage orange emerged. A few twig like catalpa that I moved early this spring just sat there for the longest time—then finally burst. They stayed small though, reaching only about 2 feet— but are cute as buttons. An unidentified group of stink bugs inhabits them now. One nut tree put on over 3 feet of growth in its 3rd year. Keeping pace with neighboring basket willows that have reached similar heights, they'll offer a challenge to move next spring. Our yellow buckeye show significant resistance to leaf rust when compared to the more common horsechestnut. The former come on strong early in the year and were not affected by late frosts. A clump of pig plants took the cold in stride also. Second year plants are now making seed. A few of our apios (groundnuts) blossomed late this summer. These plants seem to benefit from weed control, at least initially. We've observed older plantings that have taken over an embankment, making an interesting ground cover. How have your plants been growing?…

Whether or not your plants survived this past winter may have been influenced by many factors—just don't rule out the weather. What might have appeared as favorable conditions—with the generous amounts of (insulating) snow—quite possibly had harmful effects. Many plants may not have had adequate time to become dormant during the wet fall. The snow cover—coming early and remaining thick—effectively reduced the amount of frost in the ground. Plants that remained more succulent than usual may have suffered from desiccation or from severe temperature fluctuations. Roger Luce observed damage from winter injury on species that rarely get affected.

You're not alone if your plants froze, or died back. At the very least, this rather sneaky 'test' winter affords just another opportunity to observe plant selection in progress. A small consolation for sure, but of some significance in the long run. When the going gets tough, the tough keep growing.

LITERATURE

HEALTHY HARVEST II - A Directory of Sustainable Agriculture and Horticulture Organizations, 1987-88, Potomac Valley Press, 1424 16th St. NW #105, Washington, DC 20036, $10.95 plus $1.00 for shipping and handling. This edition contains over 600 entries of organizations, institutes, programs and groups working to promote a healthy future. Our copy is available for loan.

PEAR CULTURE - Oberly, Lamb, Forshey, Information Bulletin 126, 17 p., $1.00, Distribution Center C, 7 Research Park, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850. A brief but thorough overview for growing pears commercially in New York. Much of the information is also applicable for local, small scale growers.

A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR INDICATING POTENTIAL PERENNIAL CROP SYSTEMS FOR THE NORTHEAST. A Master's thesis presented at Cornell University by Karl M. Davies, Jr., August 1984, 113 pp. (cleverly reduced to about fifty 8½ x 11 pages and easily mailed). It's not often that you find someone trying to make sense out of relatively unproven perennial crops. Karl does an excellent job here, tying in related factors like economic returns from all products (honey, nuts, fruit and timber). Korean Pine, gingko, shagbark hickory and black walnut head the top of his list for food production but you'll want to learn more about the others too. A helpful bibliography and appendices are included. Karl is a consulting forester in Western Massachusetts. We feel this is one of the few references that appraises trees and plants that we can grow with some working insight. Our single copy is available for loan and we'll be checking into re-printing this paper.

NUT NOTES AND WHAT NOTS: we've yet to complete a NOTES ON NUTS and would like to solicit your experiences or advice for compiling a list of what will and won't grow in this area. Plant and seed sources will be noted. If you can help, send us some material to look over this fall—we'll try and have a handout ready by this winter. We'd like to see more have nots—have nuts.

GROWING GRAPES IN MINNESOTA - $6 ppd. from: Birger Johannessen, 1167 Slendon St., Maplewood, MN 55119. A revised edition of the Minnesota Grape Growers Association booklet that should be of help to us all.

FORESTS IN PERMACULTURE: Pamphlet X in a Design Course Series. Transcripts of a 1981 workshop conducted by Bill Mollison at the Rural Education Center in Wilton, NH, 16 pp, $1 ppd. from us. Contains many ideas for tropical areas but also enough thought provoking material to try most anywhere. No one need starve, freeze or be otherwise uncomfortable in the presence of some selected trees. In their absence...many remain so..

THE REFERENCE MANUAL OF UOODY PLANT PROPAGATION - From Seed to Tissue Culture, Michael Dirr, Charles Heuser, Jr. 1987, 239 pp., 8½x11 format, $29.95 plus $1.90 shipping and handling, Varsity Press, P.O. Box 6301, Athens, GA, 30604. This work contains information on how to raise most anything you'd care to grow. (1100 species, varieties and cultivars!)

TREE CROPS: A PERMANENT AGRICULTURE—J. Russel Smith. A long awaited reprinting of this classic should be forthcoming soon. Contact: Island Press, Covelo, CA

FRUIT THAT FITS, PART II MINOR FRUIT (Send us a SASE and a stamp). This 2 page handout lists sources and possibilities for about a dozen perennial plants that could be a part of your Maine Edible Landscape. All of these could use further evaluation. What hardy kiwi will grow best and where? Hew soon will these fruit? What are some of their problems in this climate? We have only sketchy reports so far. Please participate in this venture by sending your comments on any fruit that you may already be growing.

* FTF Part I Major Fruit (Apples, Pears, etc. is undergoing a revision and should be available this winter, Please send us a SASE and a stamp...and be patient.)

EXCHANGE PAGE

WANTED: wild grapes with above average quality fruit. About 3-5 cuttings per plant. Contact: David Johnson, c/o Edible Landscape, Rt. 2, Box 77, Afton, VA 22920.

WANTED: Seed of "Jenner1 Beech or other proven Zone 3 hardy beech selections. Scionwood of 'Jenner' Beech, Wolf Island basswood, Ashworth and Shofer Honeylocust. Contact: Tom Plocher, 2174 First Street, White Bear Lake, MN 55110. NOTE: Tom is currently working to recover grape varieties developed by Nels Hansen in South Dakota during the 1920's. He's also cataloging what material is left on Carl Wescheke's nut breeding farm in Wisconsin, where walnuts, hickories, hazelnuts and mulberries abound.

NURSERIES

BAILEY'S NURSERY, 1325 Bailey Road, St. Paul, MN 55119. Bailey's is a reputable wholesale nursery offering many ornamental and fruit producing plants for northern areas. A group order with friends might be advised - otherwise watch FEDCO TREES listing for specific varieties.

STANLEY AND SONS, 11740 SE Orient Dr., Boring, OR 97009. Has the best selection and some of the lowest prices for hardy kiwi in the country.

NATIVE GARDENS, Rt 1, Box 494, Greenback, TN 37742, Native plant nursery—send SASE for listings.

ELMORE ROOTS NURSERY, Box 4411, Wolcott, VT 05680. Small, fruit and nut-oriented nursery.

TOLOUA NURSERY, 360 Stephen Way, Williams, OR 97544. Another small fruit to nuts nursery.

FEDCO TREES returns again for its 4th season offering an assortment of apples, pears, stone fruit, kiwi, brambles, grapes, nut trees and more. You can request an order form from John Bunker, Box 340, Palermo 04354 or pick one up at the Fruit Swap. Ordering deadline is in early December and trees arrive in late April. More local stock is being offered yearly and prices are reasonable.


THIRD ANNUAL FALL FRUIT, NUT, AND SEED EXCHANGE
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 18TH - NOON TO 5 P.M., UNITY COLLEGE, UNITY
WORKSHOPS will begin at 1:00 and on the hour and run for 45 minutes each. Please arrive on time and leave on time. Seating is limited.
A PROGRAM of the day's full activities will be available at the registration desk.
OUTSIDE EVENTS may occur; please dress accordingly.
REGISTRATION at the top of the stairs, will help us record who attends and what they bring. There is no charge for this event.
NAME TAGS will be given out. Please include your address and horticultural interests to help make connections.
LABEL what you bring with your name or initials, variety name (if known) and where it was collected. Paper plates will be provided for individual samples.
INCLUDE PLANTING INSTRUCTIONS for specific seeds, bulbs or tubers if necessary.
HAVE SOMETHING YOU CAN'T IDENTIFY? Others may be able to provide a clue. Check back at the end of the day to see what guesstimates have been made.
BRING...paper or plastic bags, seed packets, envelopes, even a divided cardboard box to take home a "sampler”.
A LITERATURE AM) CATALOG DISPLAY will be maintained in one of the rooms. A copier is located across the way in the library. Please return anything you borrow. For specific copying requests see Jack or Lainie.
A MESSAGE BOARD will be available to help raake valuable contacts - please post your notes there.
SUPERVISED CHILDREN are welcomed. The library has an excellent children's section upstairs—please be considerate of students studying. Some type of children's activities may occur but we ..need help on this to make it happen. Any ideas?\ A CIDER PRESS may be set up for refreshments. Please bring culled fruit to share.
POT LUCK SUPPER at 5:00 in the display room. Cold dishes are generally recommended. CLEAN UP follows immediately—please help out.
VOLUNTEERS are needed for a few major and some minor details. Set up, clean up, registration, inventory and note taking, Please let us know if you can help, show up early or stay late.
WORKSHOP LEADERS and others connected with this event are all volunteering their time to make this a memorable occasion.
PUBLICITY - timely ads will go out. It might also help if you mention word of this to those that you think may be interested.
NEW THIS YEAR - 1988 SCIONUOOD EXCHANGE PLANNING SESSION MEETING to be held near the end of the day. we need some creative ideas and a few dedicated people to help lighten the work load.
AND... WHILE WE'RE AT IT - WHAT ABOUT ALL THIS NETWORK STUFF ANYWAY? Who really wants to see local seed collecting, nurseries, tool orders and related projects develop? What can be done, WHO can do it? We'd like to hear your cements and criticisms about the alliance. Help us direct its future. A short meeting will be scheduled.
FOR FURTHER' INFORMATION contact us at home (evenings) at 568-3444.
We wish to thank Unity College for hosting this event. Please show your appreciation by keeping things orderly throughout the day.
DIRECTIONS: From Bangor: Route 9/202, 1/4 mile past the village turn left. From Waterville: Route 139 to village, right on 9/202, then next left. From Augusta: Route 3 to route 9/202, turn right at the college's sign. Main entrance to campus is 1/2 mile from sign on route 9/202. Bear right and continue up hill to the furthest building on the left (gymnasium)


THE MAINE TREE CROP ALLIANCE IS A NETWORK SEEKING TO LINK PLANTS WITH PEOPLE. OUR SPRING SCION WOOD EXCHANGE AND THE FALL FRUIT SWAP ARE OPEN TO EVERYONE, AND PROVIDE AN OPPORTUNITY TO MEET OTHERS AND SHARE IDEAS, INFO, SKILLS AND PLANT MATERIALS. NEWSLETTERS ARE ISSUED IN EARLY MARCH AND SEPTEMBER. SUBSCRIPTIONS $2/YR AND BACK 1SSUES ARE AVAILABLE, 50 CENTS EACH. PLEASE KEEP US POSTED OF YOUR HORTICULTURAL ACTIVITIES.

ADDRESS CIRCLED IN RED? YOUR SUBSCRIPTION HAS EXPIRED. PLEASE RENEW PROMPTLY.

MAINE TREE CROP ALLIANCE
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CENTER
UNITY COLLEGE
UNITY, MAINE 04988

This newsletter digitized by Tom Roberts, 3-Mar-2011.