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"Preserve the old, but Know the new" -- Ancient Chinese Proverb

A Network for Trees and their Friends

Newsletter No. 3, January 1984

Tree Notes For Tree Nuts

BIRDS- OUR FEATHERED FRIENDS
In the 1916 Maine Report of the Agricultural Commission—William E. Powers of Machias ends his article—BIRDS OF THE ORCHARD “Go home and kill your cat. Stop your boys from robbing nests. Study the part that birds and insects play in fruit culture and bountiful harvests will follow." Have pity on your kitty but consider the role birds play in reducing pests.

The USDA rates owls highly as rodent controllers (watch it cats). Credit is given to US redwing blackbirds for destroying 16 thousand 200 million larva in a season. One mourning dove examined contained over 9,000 seeds—none of which were useful plants. A yellow throated warbler was estimated to consume 10,000 tree lice in a day. A single chickadee may eat 100,000 cankerworm eggs in a few weeks. Tree sparrows in the state of Iowa may consume 875 tons of weed seeds each winter(a low estimate)—with few seeds remaining viable. Adults are known to consume 20% of their body weight per day and this gluttony is passed on to their offspring. One 3½ oz. robin ate 165 cutworms(5½ oz.). Another was fed 14 feet of worms and was hungry the next day. Their last few days in the nest may require feedings every 3 minutes. With several broods a year—predation can be significant.

Not without fault, fruit, vegetables and grain crops are often ravaged by birds and this conspicuous activity leaves negative impressions. An Ontario study suggests that preference is given to certain cultivars(mature red over mature yellow fruits, early over late maturing fruits, loose over tightly husked corn). Starlings and robins got most dishonorable mention. The study also suggested that proximity to woodlots, hedgerows or large trees also increased susceptibility of certain orchards and fields—so take note. Some species serve as vectors for disease and weed seeds and others' seed eating habits have influenced forest suppression.

Careful management of your landscape can help encourage the beneficial activities of birds and reduce their predation on your fruit crops. Nearly any tree, shrub or plant is valuable to wildlife as food, shelter, song perch or host for insects. Studies indicate that the 12-15 year period following a fallowed field afforded the greatest varieties of bird species—as habitat diversity was at its highest. Creating this effect can be rewarding. Some productive hints from ENJOYING MAINE BIRDS: 1) The kind of plant is less important than the right combination of trees, shrubs and open places. 2) The better conditions are for plants, the better they will be for birds. Try managing for wood and woodpeckers, blue berries and bluebirds. Go easy on Rotenone—its rough on birds and bees. Grow sunflowers and millet for winter feed. Give birds the respect they deserve and they'll reward you with one of the safest and most pleasant methods of biological control. Bird scaping is not just for the birds.

Consult the bibliography and nursery list for more precise information and sources of plant materials.

What Birds Eat

SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL
The 1981 New England Tree Farm award went to the caretaker of an 18 acre woodlot. The 60 year old grown up Vermont pasture was marked for removal of 8 cord to the acre. Utilizing wood down to 1 inch diameter (sold in 3 ft. lengths to syrup operators), yielded 18 cord to the acre. Nutrients are replaced with leaves from town. Saw logs are removed in the winter with a rented dozer in less than a day. Working alone, the owner with a 4 x 4 truck figures he can clear $30 in a morning. Woodworking at his shop he turns small and unusual wood into additional revenue. Timber Stand Improvement on neighboring land rounds out this former Bronx, N.Y. native's income. Get the full story in the Nov. 83 Country Journal

URBAN FORESTS
Quite a few urban trees were planted in the 1930's and with their decline and such impact as Dutch Elm Disease, many cities are taking a closer look at the role trees have in a city environment. Besides their functional uses; filtering noise and air pollution, and moderating temperatures—trees are being looked at for even greater economic value. One estimate sites many cities sitting on $1,000 acre timberland. Cincinnati has planted a 12 acre highway strip to black alder and black locust and expects to save $14,000 in mowing costs and should reap a $5,000 profit at harvest. Citizen participation may prove to be the greatest asset of a city tree program as adopt a tree projects help to reduce maintenance costs. N.Y. City has 522 citizen pruners and in some areas tree planting has stimulated house improvements. Yet perhaps the most important role of the public has been in getting the politics of tree programs moving. Maine has a shade tree program that provides technical assistance, advice and financial aid to municipalities. Portland has a cooperative tree planting program with an extensive list of recommended trees. These are primarily ornamentals that do have an aesthetic appeal and considerable wildlife value. Perhaps it would be wiser for Maine municipalities to begin to assist the public in growing food crops. This is no pie in the sky idea. In the January 1983 issue of LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, a journal of the American Society for Landscape Architecture, it was bluntly stated that cities would begin to NEED to produce food and fuel—and it has been and is already happening in some countries. The same journal reports of efforts to create metropolitan homesteads. Similarly, Gardens For All in Vermont is promoting a national suburban homesteading law to secure urban sites. The Massachusetts Fruition Project and Eugene, Oregon's EDIBLE CITY RESOURCE MANUAL (Richard Britz Will, Kaufman Inc. 1 First St. Los Altos, CA 94022. 1981. 354 pgs. $12.95) are working models of these approaches to urban sanity. Even the trees have something to gain. Richard Ames reports in the May 1980 issue of JOURNAL OF ABORICULTURE (International Society of Arboriculture, 5 Lincoln Square, P.O. Box 71, Urbana, II 61801) that “sociological factors may be more important than biological factors in determining tree survival and well being”. Urban Forestry Practitioners—THE URBAN FORESTER'S NOTEBOOK, School of Forestry, S.U.N.Y., Syracuse, N.Y.. 13210 is available free if you can get on their mailing list. A periodical of gleanings of urban tree knowledge. For a SASE and a stamp we'll send you 2 pgs. of related material from THE FUTURE IS ABUNDANT. Arbor Week is the third week in May—What trees will you be making happy?

PROJECTS & UPDATES

BIBLIOGRAPHY—Postponed once again. Add your favorite titles to the growing list which will include abstracts from TALIMAINE, a computer generated data base, service available free to residents of the state (from the state library).

LENDING LIBRARY—A list of books for loan can be had for 50¢ and a S.A.S.E. You pay book rate postage both ways. Other details on request or as necessary. Write the Alliance.

PEOPLE LOCATOR—Perhaps by spring they'll be enough interested responses to warrant a listing. Survey forms are available. Let's here from you. Don't remain Euonymous! Bring your name and interests to the scion wood exchange and become a celebrity.

TREE LOCATOR—Please keep an accurate record of trees you gather scion wood from, or any trees of particular merit — then send us a list.

ExCHANGE PAGE—We hope to get an accurate record of who brings what to this years scion wood exchange and will list these along with any other particulars you have or would like to locate—in the spring edition.

FRUIT IDENTIFICATION—What became evident this past fall was that a large number of people have a genuine interest in what varieties grow around them. No singular reference (or individual) is available at present to identify these. Wild fruit and tree neglect complicates the matter. We'd like to encourage a program this fall that will record the fruit with color photos and pertinent information of particular trees. You can help by collecting data on the trees that interest you and finding out more about your areas pomological history and retired tree people. Move info, as developments occur.

WANTED7—Clear, concise pictures of apple tree pruning for junior high/high school level project. Do you have some or know of a good source?

ADOPT A TREE—If you have some neglected fruit trees in your area that are growing unattended, you may want to suggest to the owner an adoption plan where you will try and restore the tree for the promise from owner of picking rights. Many of these older trees still retain much vigor and if you're starting your own orchard it may be sometime before you see any results from young trees. Restorative care can begin with careful pruning(go easy the first year), sanitation-remove drops, clean bark, burn diseased twigs, and a fertilization program. Here's one you can try this spring: Make a manure tea using a gallon of cow manure to 20 gals, of water, let tea work, then dilute to 1 pt per gal. of water. Make holes with a spading fork at 3 ft. intervals about halfway between the base of the tree and the drip line. Pour in tea. Some spraying may be required depending on conditions and your needs. Some of these older trees are producing handsome fruit with absolutely no maintenance and you may wish to., forgo the work and just harvest. If you still want to fuss some TIPS ON RENOVATING OLD APPLE TREES is available from Khadighar, Box 1167, Farmington, Me 04938.

SCION WOOD ExCHANGE

With comments like “just like Christmas” at last years exchange, you wont want to miss this years turnout of fruit wood and fruit buffs. There will be nuts, seeds and literature there as well. All the materials you'll need for making your own grafted tree (including rootstock and GRAFTING WORKSHOPS) will be on hand so you won't go home treeless. Bring fresh, bundled and labeled scion wood of your choice to swap, sell, or give away. Got a tree you like but can't name the variety? Don't put off propagating something you enjoy and can get identified later. Grafting is simple and an inexpensive way to enhance your collection. This years event will be held at:
SOUTH PARISH CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 9 Church St. Augusta
SUNDAY MARCH 25 1-5 Bring a friend and a list of what you bring.
NOTE: Maybe you'd like to host a scion wood gathering in your area, but can't make it down for this one. Let us know—we'll be glad to send you some scions. Need anything particular—write us.

BOOKS FOR SALE

THE INTERNATIONAL PERMACULTURE SEED YEARBOOK (T. I . P.S.Y. ) 1983. Hardly outdated. 71 pgs.(8½ x 11). A reference work on the impact of perennial culture on man and the land. $6.00.

THE MAN WHO PLANTED HOPE AND GREW HAPPINESS, For the young and young at heart. Portrays assurance of a future when one cares. A nice gift for your local school. $1.50.

TREESONG, A collection of fact and folklore on the magic of trees from Children of the Green Earth. $1.50.

PACKAGE DEAL!!!!! All 3 above books including postage and spring NOFA Newsletter on fruits and berries $8.00

SPRING EDITION OF TREE ALLIANCE NEWSLETTER

The spring edition will cover Honeylocusts and mulberries, Tree Folk—a profile on Fred Ashworth, plant breeder, Kids & Trees go together and grow together—send your ideas. Plant use chart—constructive use of the landscape. Scion wood listing. People Locator—Questionnaire respondents and their interests.

SUBSCRIBE!

OK, presumably you've read all the above—now what's it worth to you? This will be your last free issue… Nothing supports this network but your subscription or donation and the small returns on materials. There's no grant money riding on this effort, no yearly dues. You get information and a link to other interested horticulturalists. We can skip the ADVERTISING, APPEALS AND FUNDRAISING if you pay your way. This newsletter is a forum for people to get involved. The alliance exists to help you make things happen—not to do it for you. Participate in any way you can—write, plant, show others. Scour your neighborhood for trees and tree folk, collect information on your favorite species, share it. TRY THE UNTRIED. If you think the potential for tree crops needs to be developed in this state and that this newsletter is a viable approach—let's hear from you. A big THANKS to those who have already been supportive. Make your nutwork part of this network. NEW SUBSCRIPTION RATE: 3 issues—$3. M.T.C.A., E.S. CENTER, UNITY COLLEGE, UNITY 04988

ORGANIZATIONS

BANE is sane—Bioregions of the American North East is an organization viewing the land with geographical rather than political boundaries. BANE attempts to link up those that share a common topography & mentality. Contact with a S.A.S.E.: Norman Marshall, RR1, Box 211, Etna N.H. 03750

—A BANE NEWSLETTER (quarterly) should be available as of Feb. 1984. Send $5.00 c/o Yankee Permaculture, P.O. Box 202, Orange, MA 01364.

—A BANE meeting has been scheduled for Feb. 24, 2:00pm, at Hampshire College, Amherst, MA.

—A BIOREGIONAL HANDBOOK will be forthcoming under the auspices of Dan Hemmenway, P.O. Box 202, Orange, MA. Dan edits The International Permaculture Seed Year-Book and this years T.I.P.S.Y. will feature articles on Apios tuberosa—the American groundnut, bee forage, urban permaculture and an enlarged resources section.

SWOAM—Small Woodlot Owners Association of Maine. Promotes education in forest monthly newsletters. Annual dues $10. SWOAM, S. Gouldsboro, ME 04678

MCAT—Maine Center for Appropriate Technology, RFD 3, Box 508, Augusta, ME 04330-Research on housing, energy conservation, food, gardening and low cost transportation.

HORT IDEAS—Monthly update on the latest in research, tools, books § ideas for fruit, vegetable £ ornamental growers gleaned from hundreds of sources. A must for creative amateurs. 10 pgs. per issue, small print. Sample copy $1.00, $10.00 for 12 issues. HORT IDEAS, RT 1, Gravel Switch, KY 40328.

SMALL FRUIT NEWSLETTER, c/o Highmoor Farm Monmouth, ME. 04259. Area fruit & vegetable specialist David Handley reports on the latest developments of concern to small fruit enthusiasts. Monthly and free.

PEST MANAGEMENT IN ORCHARDS, Steve Page hopes to release a quarterly beginning this spring for low spray practitioners. Steve Page, Rockport, Me. 04856.

PLUM NETWORK, John Bunker has consented to be a plum tester and information gatherer with the North American Fruit Explorers. Let him know what you're growing or get advice from him. The 1892 Yearbook of Agriculture describes the Harlow Plum (S.C. Harlow—Bangor) as vigorous and exceedingly productive. Anyone growing this variety? Contact John at Box 340, Palermo, Me. 04354.

Drawing of Simple Bird Houses FIG. 90.— Simple bird houses.

TOOLS & SUPPLIES
NASCO FARM $ RANCH, 901 Jonesville Ave, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538. Mostly livestock related, but a fair supply of farm, orchard and forestry supplies with reasonable prices.

WOODCRAFT TOOLS, 41 Atlantic Ave., P.O. Box 4000, Woburn MA 01888. Pretty much the state of the art in toolmaking supplies with prices to match (catalog $2.50). Nice book selection.

ORCHARD EQUIPMENT & SUPPLY, RT. 116 Conway, MA. 01341. Probably the most complete selection of orchard paraphenalia in the North East. No real catalog—be specific when requesting information. They carry most leading brands including Allen pole pruners & saws as well as some used commercial equipment.

ADVANCED FARM SYSTEMS, RD 1, Box 364, Bradford, ME 04410. Suppliers of Techfence—Penn State, 5 wire electric fence system for livestock & predator control.

GALLAGHER SPRING TIGHT POWER FENCE, Tom Settlemire, River Rd. Brunswick 04011 or Brookside Industries, Turnbridge, VT. 05077. Utilizes 7 wire sloping fence design for deer control.

A. M. LEONARD, 6665 Spiker Rd. Piqua, OH 45356. Just about any horticultural need will be satisfied in this 78pg. catalog. Quantity discounts available. Prices not always competitive. Shop around!

SMITH & HAWKEN TOOLS, 68 Homer Palo Alto, CA. 94301. High quality horticultural tools, prices vary.

NECESSARY TRADING CO., Main St. New Castle, VA 24217. Beneficial insects, monitoring equipment, soil amendments, foliar nutrients, books and accessories for garden and orchard.

ORGANIC GROWERS SUPPLY INC., Box 2176, Augusta, ME. 04330. 0.G.S.I, is a pre-order selection of fertilizers, biological controls & accessories from Necessary Trading Co. Depots throughout the state. Order deadline 3/1/84.

KAMA IMPORTS, P.O. Box 612, Central City, KY 42330. Kamas-Japanese hand sickles—different models used for weeding, clearing light brush & pruning.

JOHN BACON CORP., Gaspost, N.Y. Grafting supplies.

CROSSCUT SAW CO., 2 Leland Cir., Seneca Falls, N.Y. 13148. Two person saws, tools, axes & accessories.

BEN MEADOWS CO., 3589 Broad St. Atlanta, GA. 30366.

FORESTRY SUPPLIERS, 205 W. Rankin St., P.O. Box 8397, Jackson, MS. 39204. These last two companies are some of the largest brokers in the world.

SNOW & NEALLY, Bangor, ME. Axes and forestry tools KELCO INDUSTRIES, P.O.Box 163, Milbridge, ME. 04658. Pruning tools.



NURSERIES

ST. LAWRENCE NURSERIES, RD 2, Potsdam, N.Y. 13676. Biasedly, OUR FAVORITE. Owner Bill MacKentley has carried on the infectious work of the late Fred Ashworth. Test winters of -50°F insure the hardiness of his stock.

SWEDBERG NURSERIES, Battle Lake, MN 56515. Northblue, Northsky blueherries, plums, mulberries, grapes, nut trees, cherry, apricot, conservation and ornamental shrubs.

WINDY HILLS FARM, 1565 E. Wilson Rd., Scottville, MI 49454. Trees for permaculture, informative catalog.

WONDOROUS LION NURSERY, Rt 1, Box 212A, Sagle, ID. 83860. Haralson apple, Swiss stone pine, other fruit and nut trees.

GRIMO NUT NURSERY, R.R.3 Lakeshore Rd, Niagra On the Lake, Ontario, CANADA LOS IJO. Five types of heartnuts, eleven Black Walnuts, Seven Persian, Campbell Persimmon, Illinois Everbearing and White Ivory Mulberries, Kentucky Coffee Tree, Nielson Shagbark Hickory, Buarnut (Butternut x Hearnut), Northern Pecan, hybrid filbert.

LOUIS GERARDI NURSERY, R.R.I, Box 143 O'Fallon, II. 62269. Nuts, mulberries.

SAGINA VALLEY NUT NURSERY, 8285 Dixie Hwy. Rt.3, Birch Run, Mi. 48415. Black walnuts, Persians, butternuts, buarnuts.

JERSEY CHESTNUT FARM, 58 Van Duyne Ave. , Wayne, N.J. 07470 Seven persimmon varieties. “Orrin” Chinese chestnut.

WALNUT PLANTATIONS, Benhart Rajala, 3030 Isle View Rd. Grand Rapids, Mn . 55744. American Chestnut seeds from blight free trees. 25 seeds $6.00; 1 lb. $25.00. pp.

BEAR CREEK FARMS, P.O. Box 248, Northport, WA 99157 Fruit, nut and shelterbelt trees and shrubs.

ZILKE BROS'S NURSERY, Baroda, Mi 49101. Fruit and nuts.

WASHBURN FARM NURSERY, Box 823, Farm Loop Rd. Palmer, AK 99645. Nice selection, still in business?

WORCESTER COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 30 Elm St., Worcester, MA 01608 Scions only of about 80 old apple varieties. $1.50 each order by Feb. 1 for spring, July 1 for budding.

NEW YORK STATE FRUIT TESTING COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATION, Geneva, N.Y. 14456. For anyone with an interest in new and old fruit varieties. Access to introductions from around the world—apple, apricots, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, currants, elderberries, gooseberries, grapes, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums, raspberries, strawberries, Nanking cherry, Wellington mulberry. Annual dues about $6 and worth it.

SOUTH MEADOW FRUIT GARDENS, 2363 Tilbury PI. Birmingham Mi. 48009. Rootstock, antique apple and other fruit, Smirna quince.

STARK BRO'S NURSERIES, Louisiana, Mo. 63353. Informative commercial catalog tree fruit.

HILLTOP NURSERY, P.O. Box 143, Hartford, Mi 49057. Oriented toward commercial growers and wholesale orders.

AMBERGS NURSERY, 3164 Whitney Rd., Stanley, N.Y. 14561. 42 apple varieties, dwarfing rootstock.

ADAMS COUNTY NURSERY, P.O. Box 108, Aspers, Pa 47304. Apple, pear, peach, cherry on dwarfing rootstock.

MAYO NURSERIES, 8393 Klippel Rd. RT. 14 N. Lyons, N.Y. 14489. Apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach, blueberries, strawberries.

ROARING BROOK NURSERIES, RT l,Box 728, Monmouth, Me. 04259. Some old varieties of apple, pear, plum, cherry, blueberries.

APPLEWOOD NURSERY, RFD 1, Box 103, Unity, Me. 04988. Offers a selection of apple varieties.

MORDEN NURSERIES, P.O. Box 1270, Morden, Manitoba,CANADA. Boyne raspberry from Morden Research Station, Honeywood and Smoky Saskatoons (juneberries).

BEAVERLODGE NURSERY LTD., Box 127, Beaverlodge Alberta, CANADA TOH OCO. Pembina, Northline and Smoky Saskatoons, and other hardy fruit and ornamental trees.

BOUGHEN NURSERIES, Box 12, Valley River Manitoba, CANADA ROL 280. Fruit trees, bush fruit.

NOTE: CANADIAN IMPORT RESTRICTIONS CURRENTLY REQUIRE AN ENTRY PERMIT ON THE FOLLOWING GENUS: Malus, Pyrus, Prunus, Rubus, Ribes. Expect red tape and extra money and effort to acquire these.

LAWYER NURSERIES, 950 Highway 200 West Plains, MT. 59859. Trees and tree seeds. Very large commercially oriented. Minimum order $50.00. Hardy material.

FROSTY HOLLOW NURSERY, Box 53, Langley, WA 98260. Trees and tree seeds.

F. W. SCHUMACHER CO., Sandwich, MA. 02563. Seeds only of many trees and shrubs for all climates. Oz. packets available.

FRIENDS OF THE TREES, P.O.Box 1064, Tonasket, WA 98855. Tree, shrub, and vine seeds.

GREENLEAF SEEDS, P.O. Box 89, Conway, MA 00)341. A very diverse collection of plant seeds to complement your landscape. Recommended for its enlightening approach on whats to eat, who eats it and who cares.

TRIPPLE BROOK FARM, 37 Middle Rd. Southamton, MA 01073. Native and non-native perennials: actnidia (kiwi), apios (ground nuts), mulberry.

AMERICAN WILDFLOWER NURSERY, Rtl, Box 275A, Reedsville, PA. 17084. Trees, shrubs, perennials, seeds from around the world. $1.00 for catalogue.

DUTCH MOUNTAIN NURSERY, Augusta, Mi 49012. Send a S.A.S.E. for a list of native plants to attract birds and wildlife and for tips on beescaping.

KESTERS WILD GAME FOOD NURSERIES, P.O.Box V, Omro, Wi 54963. Many terrestrial and aquatic plants for fur and feathered friends.

WILDLIFE NURSERIES, P.O.Box 2724, Oshkosh, Wi 54903. Wild rice and much of the above.

BEE PASTURE SEEDS, Box 473, Bellevue, Ne 68005. Seeds for pollen and nectar producing plants.

PELLET GARDENS, Atlantic, IA 50022. Honey plants.

COLD STREAM FARM, 2030 Free Soil Rd. Free Soil, Mi. 49411-9752. Twenty clones of hybrid poplar, conservation trees and shrubs, Osage orange.

MILES FRY AND SON NURSERY, Rd. 3, Euphrata, PA 17522. Hybrid poplar growers for 29 years. WOOD POWER ENERGY CORPORATION is their effort to promote short rotation forestry.

WESTERN MAINE FOREST NURSERIES, 36 Elm St. Fryeburg, Me 04037. Conservation stock.

MAY NURSERY, Box 880, RFD 2, Thorndike, Me. 04986. Seedlings of western and native conifers.

MAKIELSKI BERRY FARM, 7130 Platt Rd. Ypsilanti, Mi.48197 Black, purple and red raspberries, blackberries, strawberries.

NORTH STAR NURSERY, Rt. 13, Williamstan, N.Y. 13493. Nineteen strawberry varieties, and seven blueberry varieties (among them Northland and Northblue).

NOURSE FARMS, Box 485, RFD, S. Deerfield, MA. 01373. Strawberries (34 varieties) and raspberries.

ALExANDERS BLUEBERRY NURSERIES, Wareham St. Middleboro, Ma 02346. Twelve varieties.

COMMON FIELDS NURSERY, Ipswich, Ma. 01938. Twelve blueberries, and ornamentals.

DIMENSIONS FOR BIRD BOXES

SpeciesLength
    x
Width
Size of Entrance Hole Depth   Distance: Entrance to BaseHeight Above Ground
Bluebird5"x5"1½"8"6"5-10'
Chickadee4"x4"1⅛"8-10"6-8"6-15'
Titmouse4"x4"1¼"8-10"6-8"6-15'
Nuthatch4"x4"1¼"8-10"6-8"12-20'
House Wren4"x4"1"6-8"1-6"6-10'
Carolina Wren4"x4"1⅛"6-8"1-6"6-10'
Tree Swallow5"x5"1½"6"1-5"10-15'
Purple Martin6"x6"2½"6"1"15-20'
House Finch6"x6"2"6"4"8-12'
Starling6"x6"2"16-18"14-16"10-25'
Crested Flycatcher6"x6"2"8-10"6-8"8-20'
Flicker7"x7"2½"16-18"14-16"6-20'
Red Headed Woodpecker6"x6"2"12-15"9-12"12-20'
Downy Woodpecker4"x4"1¼"8-10"6-8"6-20'
Hairy Woodpecker6"x6"1½"12-15"9-12"12-20'
Screech Owl8"x8"3"12-15"9-12"10-36'
Saw-Whet Owl6"x6"2½"10-12"8-10"12-20'
Barn Owl10"x18"6"15-18"4"12-18'
Sparrow Hawk8"x8"3"12-15"9-12"10-36'
Open Platforms
Robin6”x8" 8” 6-15'
Bam Swallow6”x6” 6” 8-12'
Phoebe 6"x6" 8-12" 8-12'
—From U.S.D.A. Farmers Bulletin 1456

BIRD BIBLIOGRAPHY

USEFUL BIRDS AND THEIR PROTECTION, Forbush Mass. State Board of Ag. 1905. 437 pgs.

THE UTILITY OF BIRDS, Forbush Mass Dept. of Ag. 1922 83 pgs.

THE PRACTICAL VALUE OF BIRDS, Junius Henderson MacMillan 1927. 342 pgs.

BIRDSCAPING YOUR YARD, Department of Environmental Protection, Information and Education, State Office Building. Hartford, Ct. 06106. 1972, 47 pgs. FREE - a great handbook!

ENJOYING MAINE BIRDS, Me. Audubon, 1972. 80 pgs. $2.00?

CAVITY NESTING BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICAN FORESTS, USDAFS Handbook #511S.O.D.G.R.O. WA.D.D. 20402 1977, 112pgs. $5.50. Habits,. nesting practices and dietary requirements of 85 species.

FIREWOOD AND WILDLIFE, FS USDA, 370 Reed Rd. Broomal Pa. 19008. FS Research Note-299. 5 pgs.

AMERICAN THRUSHES, VALUABLE NEIGHBORS, 1913 Yearbook of Ag., Beal, pgs. 135-142.

AMERICAN WILDLIFE AND PLANTS, Martin, Zim, Nelson, Dover Pub. Inc. NY 1961, 500 pgs. Food and habitat requirements.

BIRDS AS WEED DESTROYERS, Sylvester Judd, USDA 1898 Yearbook of Agriculture. Pgs 221-232.

TREES, SHRUBS AND VINES FOR ATTRACTING BIRDS, A manual for the Northeast, DeGraaf and Witman, Univ of Ma. Press 1979. 193 pegs. $12.50. An excellent reference.

DETERMINATION OF HABITAT REQUIREMENTS FOR BIRDS IN SUBURBAN AREAS, Thomas, DeGroaf, Mawson N.E.F.S.E.S. Upper Darby, Pa. 15 pgs.

BIRDS IN THEIR RELATIONS TO MAN—A manual of economic ornithology for the U.S. and Canada. Weed and Dearborn, 1903, 380 pgs. with bibliography.

Marcel Triau a dowser, auto mechanic and plant lover, claims trees have a “front door”—an area several feet up the trunk and about a foot square-where the tree receives its energy. He locates the 'door' with a dowsing rod or pendulum. He then sticks one end of a piece of wire at the trees base and coils the wire clockwise 3 times around the trunk, leaving the loose end sticking up just at the bottom of the front door and using stakes to keep the wire from touching the tree. Experimenting with the number of coils and space between them—Marcel suggests this energy be used to get rid of tent caterpillars, cure disease or encourage growth.

Japanese 'Shiitake' mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) are the second most important mushroom crop in the world. These are cultured on hardwood logs under a forest canopy—fruiting begins in 2 years and should last 5 years. They are prized for their flavor and medicinal value and sell here for $35/lb (dried). Anyone with experience raising these in this climate—please write. Spawn and production information may be obtained from: Kinoko Co., P.O.Box 6425, Oakland, CA 94621; KURTZMANS MUSHROOM SPECIALTIES, 815 S. Harbour Way #12, Richmond, CA 94804; MUSHROOM PEOPLE, P.O.Box 158 W, Inverness, CA. 94937.

TREE CROP LITERATURE

WINTER KEYS TO WOODY PLANTS OF MAINE, Campbell & Hyland, UMO Press 1978 110 pgs. §4.95. Nicely illustrated and accurate guide.

COMERCIAL BLUEBERRY GROWING, G. M. Darrow, A. DV Draper, D. H. Scott USGPO USDA #2254, 1978.

EDIBLE WILD FRUITS AND NUTS OF CANADA #3, National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Canada KIA OM8, 1979. 212 pgs. $9.95.

WILD COFFEE AND TEA SUBSTITUTES OF CANADA, Edible Wild Plants of Canada #2, 1978, Universtiy of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL., 111 pgs.. $6.95.

COMMON PESTS OF ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS, Treasurer of Ontario, Ontario Gov. Bookstore, 880 Bay St. , Toronto Ontario M5S 128. 64 pgs. $1.75. Nice pictures of pests of fruit and nut trees.

AMERICAN MEDICINAL BARKS, USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin #139, Alice Henkel 1909. 59 pgs.

FARM MANAGEMENT FOR PART TIME FARMERS, Pamphlet NE-209 C.E.S. of N. E. States Dis. Cen., 7 Research Park Cornel Univ., Ithaca N.Y. 14850. $1.00. 16 pgs., —the last 4 pgs. are useful.

CARE OF WILD APPLE TREES, USDAFS NA-FB/M-5. 4 pgs. Covers what scion material to use for varieties with fruit persistence for wildlife.

ENHANCEMENT OF WILDLIFE HABITAT ON PRIVATE LANDS, Decker £ Kelley, Cornel Univ. Dist. Cen., 7 Research Park 14850. 1982. 40 pgs. $3.95

RESOURCES FOR ORGANIC PEST CONTROL, Readers Service OG, 33'E. Minor St.,Emmaus, PA. 18049

INSECTICIDES FROM PLANTS, USDA AG. Handbook #461, 1975. 138 pgs. A nice review of the literature from 1954-71, including 422 references.

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FUELWOOD HARVESTING, Forestry Notes C.E.S. at U.M.O. 16 pgs. Free. Hoffman & Christensen. Two systems; A 3-hp. high-lead cable system to extract wood up to 300 ft. away. A sulky for hand, animal or garden tractor use.

LAND CLEARANCE, Intermediate Technology Group. Order from: Abundant Life Seed Foundation, P.O. Box 772, Port Townsend, WA 98368 $4.25

UNCLUTIVATED NUTS OF THE U.,S. USDA Ag. info. Bul. #450 Krochmal 1982. 89 pgs. USDA WA D.C. 20250.

THE HOME FRUIT PLANTING, Info. Bul. #156. 24 pgs. $2.00, Dist. Cen., 7 Research Park, Cornel Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 14850

CORNEL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL TREE_FRUIT PRODUCTION, Updated yearly. About $2.00. 70 pgs. Tells how and when to apply antibiotics—zinc.

A SUCCESSFUL HOME ORCHARD, C.E.S. UMO Bulletin 634. 9 pgs. A general introduction to varieties and tree care. GRAFTING FRUIT TREES, C.E.S. UMO Bulletin #582. 18 pgs. A very good introduction to 6 different grafts and budding.

Anyone with a yen for tinkering should be aware of: TOOLS FOR HOMESTEADERS, GARDENERS AND SMALL SCALE FARMERS, Diana Branch, Rodale Press, 1978. 512 pgs. $13.00. This reference lists tools from around the world and is a prime idea book for the initiated.

New Pruning Recommendations—Fact sheet #12. N.H.C.E.S. Petee Hall, UNH, Durham, N,H. 03824. Recent techniques for pruning hard and softwoods promoted by Dr. Alex Shigo—suggests leaving a collar at the base of branches to facilitate healing and warns against applying dressing to cuts which may seal in pathogens. Dr. Shigo is gaining recognition for his 'compartmentalization' theory of how trees heal their wounds.



This newsletter digitized by Tom Roberts, 3-Mar-2011.