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"Preserve the old, but Know the new" -- Ancient Chinese Proverb

A Network for Trees and their Friends

NEWSLETTER #6 WINTER/SPRING 1985

Based on last years experience, I'm going to recommend to anyone seeking an education to simply run a booth at the Common Ground Fair. What an eye opener, ear bender and throat rasper rolled into one. Special Thanks goes to Jonathan Fulford for conducting several well attended grafting classes. Also thanks to Gavin Keeney for assistance at the booth and especially for bringing along American Chestnut seedlings (propagated by Louis Lipovsky)—they were a hit. Those tree and tree minded people helped to stir up a renewed interest in Tree Crops.

Somewhere along the way I let my enthusiasm slip and so this issue is—LATE. A lack of response, energy and money has prompted me to again examine this endeavor. Now in its third season of growth, I feel it's time to seek additional finances to continue this network. I need to receive some compensation for my time AND I would also like to see outreach programs develop. Therefore, I have applied to MOFGA'S Special Projects Fund for assistance. (If you wish to show your support, collaborate on a tree project, or pursue your own grant write: MOFGA Special Projects Fund PO Box 2176 Augusta 04330.) I have also decided to cut back the newsletter to just two issues a year. I'll try and make up for it in the content—hope you'll enjoy this issue. Please note the HELP WANTED section. Many of these projects need your energy to begin. A lot of rewarding possibilities exist for the near future. Want to participate?

WRITE!

Have a productive summer
Jack


NEW DIRECTOR MEANS NEW DIRECTIONS

I shot an opening line of "Did you ever have juice made from these berries?" to a gentleman staffing the Maine Forest Service booth at the 1985 Agricultural Trade Show. After a look at a picture of a Mountain Ash tree came a smile and in a very strong European accent an enthusiastic "Yes!" reply. That enthusiasm remained for the next two hours as we exchanged a lot of down-right practical tree talk. Vladek Kolman is the new (as of 8 months ago) director of the Management & Utilization division in the Maine Forest Service....and a welcome addition indeed!!! Here's a fellow who is going to make some things happen! To start with, he'd like to see EVERY FAMILY in central and southern Maine plant A NUT TREE. He's already got Butternuts growing at the State Forest Nursery from seed he collected from a tree at his home in Augusta. (The 2-year-old seedlings are now being offered at 50¢ each. They will ship UPS for $2.00/100 trees. For a list, write State Forest Nursery RR 1 Box 22A; Passadumkeag, Me. 04475).

He liked many of the ideas the Alliance has been trying to initiate. He thinks it's very possible that a .-o computer inventory of the state's tree resources could be made. A simple thing, like focusing public attention each year on a single species, such as butternut, really appealed to him. He was full of lots more experimental information. In Czechoslovakia he worked on deer herd management. There they would cut a summer hay of tender raspberry seedlings. This was cured in an open barn, then fed out in winter as needed. His 6-man crew also collected and dried Mountain Ash berries for the herd, and collected and fed Horsechestnuts as -well. He knows some herbal suggestions for people too—dried Basswood blossom tea, being one of his favorites for sweating out a cold. He extolled the virtues of Sweet Mountain Ash (Sorbus aueuparia var. edulis) for its delicious jam, wine and brandy (184 proof!!). He was pleased to hear that it is available in this country (St. Lawrence Nursery, Potsdam, N.Y. has (had?) a limited number for sale this year). We were glad to have had the picture along. I knew the picture of that tree might get a few people thinking. I didn't think I would be one of them! Vladek (or Kirn for short) gave a lot of reassurance that he wouldn't sit idly and expressed a need to be patient with "the System".

He said he staffs these booths just to meet people and he was very congenial with all who came by. I'll be looking forward to working with this gentleman. I hope that some of you will get the chance to meet and exchange ideas with him as well. His address is: Vladek (Kirn) Kolman; Maine Forest Service; State House Station 22, Augusta, ME 04333.


LIBERTY HYDE BAILEY; AN INFORMAL BIOGRAPHY. Cornell Press 1956. 259 pgs. Professor of practical and experimental horticulture, including pomology, floriculture, vegetable crops and landscape gardening 1888-1903. He was also Dean of the College of Agriculture at Cornell 1904-1913. Here was a scholar and wit, thinker and DOER. Bailey shook up the then astute world of agricultural educators by getting his hands dirty and passing on the enthusiasm. He cautioned: "Fact is not to be worshiped. The life which is devoid of imagination is dead; it is tied to the earth. There need be no divorce of fact and fancy; they are only poles of experience. What is called scientific method is only imagination set within bounds. Facts are bridged by imagination. They are tied together by a thread of speculation. The very essence of science is to reason from the known to the unknown." He coaxed along a Home Economics department and a nature study series for school children. He wrote a mess of books and edited the 4-volume "Cyclopedia of American Horticulture" and "Cyclopedia of American Agriculture". His_study of palms took him all over the world, even into his eighties. Here was a remarkable person whose work remains viable today. Take a look at some of his writings and maybe you too will be smitten by the "Bailey Botanical Bug".

GONE, BUT HOT FORGOTTEN

FAY HYLAND.....was professor of plant taxonomy at UMO long enough to be a legend. He died this past fall. He knew the location of many plant species throughout the state—just offhand. He made a map and wrote a book of his findings. He also started an arboretum to "test out" what could grow here. Most things fared well, some better than others—much like his students, I suppose. I never had the pleasure of his instruction—but the few times I met with him, he was most helpful and understanding. He was a valuable resource. A lot of sentiment gets spread for our loss of plant species—"genetic erosion", as it is called. Well, a good chunk of information and insight left with Fay. There are others like him out there waiting and ignored. Seems like we could glean some things from these folks. A bit of the past, shades of the future. We can graft these tidbits arid keep then alive. They might even keep us alive and help us live! Is that a fitting tribute? Keep planting those ideas and trees. Keep Fay's work, and others, alive.

WANTED

NO SPRAY FRUIT PRODUCTION INFORMATION. Very little positive information can be given fruit growers who don't want to spray their trees. At least one orchardist reported success at controlling scab by grazing sheep; other remedies may exist. Europeans encourage earwig nesting in their trees by inverting clay pots filled with straw. The earwigs prey on mites. Other critters may be beneficial too. How about an INTEGRATED PREDATOR MANAGEMENT program? Add companion plants, nurse crops and landscape features to improve the biological quality of a wholistically managed home orchard. If you have any evidence, insight or information on this subject, it would be most appreciated. We need ecological NOT egotistical production options.


NOTICE !!! *** SCION WOOD EXCHANGE *** MARCH 31st Noon - 5 - UNITY COLLEGE PLEASE CHECK INSIDE FOR MORE DETAILS.
GOING FOR BURR-OAK

Much of the excitement of a Tree Crop/Perennial Foodscape begins with the speculation of abundant, easily gathered and prepared edibles. Throwing caution to the wind, I'd like to see more practical research done on this subject. This fall I spent about an hour gathering 20 pounds cf acorns from a local lawn specimen. I later made acorn bread, using unleached, roasted acorns, ground in a meat grinder; 3 parts acorn meal to 1 part flour. Most people found the flavor different, yet quite good! No objectionable bitterness was present. Cracking and cleaning the acorns was not difficult, but a bit tedious. Nutritionally, Burr Oak offers 4% protein, 11% fat, and 80% carbohydrates. These trees are drought and pollution tolerant and while slow growing, may live to 450 year! Acorn yields of oaks have been estimated at 2,000-10,000 lbs/acre depending upon species, selection, site and climate. I won't try to extrapolate tonnage from the few trees I did sample but acorn size, yield and bitterness were variable. Selections already exist for sweetness (Ashworth). It seems quality AND quantity would be desirable traits to locate. Let's keep looking for promising local trees and share your recipes and observations. This is a valuable tree worth spreading around, for more than its food value to mankind. We can all cache in on its benefits.

OAK NOTES; The natives prized acorn oil for salves and cooking. Some tribes reportedly leached tannin using maple wood ashes. As late as this mid-century, acorns were furnishing up to 25% of the food of the poorer classes in Italy and Spain. Acorn bread or cake was found to be nutritious, cheap and able to keep indefinitely. The text "Economic Botany" recommends they be cultivated as commonly in this country as they are in the Mediterranean region. For further insight see: OOTI, A MAIDU LEGACY—The story of the acorn as told by the Maidu Indians of California. Legends, spiritual relationship, food uses and preparation. 119pgs, 50 photos $6.95. Available from: Redwood City Seed Co. PO Box 361, Redwood City, Ca 94064. Catalog is 50¢ +75¢ postage on the book. Other useful publications.

GRAPE FANS MEET:

Over 60 people attended a grape meeting sponsored by the Extension Service on March 9th. New Hampshire and Ontario notables were on hand to present their sides of commercial grape production. The following is taken from my notes:

Selection of site for grape growing is of primary consideration. Sites with 165 day growing seasons, minimum winter lows of -20°F. and 2,000-2,200 heat units are favorable fcr commercial ventures. That leaves out most of the state; homeowners-don't despair! Clear cultivation between the row and herbicides in the row are common commercial practices. Winter rye sown in August helps to harden off vines by taking in soil nutrients and moisture. Training systems were outlined. Since N.H. vines almost yearly lose a trunk to low winter temperatures, a double trunk system was recommended. Other possibilities include burying the two best arms of a vine or leaving some vines unpruned. Varieties; Kay Gray and St. Croix survived -35 F. in Maine. Beta is another hardy contender. Vanessa could be used for drying. Foch makes a superb jelly. Delaware makes-a brown juice, so should be used in a blend. DeChaunac is better suited for wine growing regions. Edleweiss is probably not going to be a good wine variety. Auroa re-sprouts after winter injury. Suffolk Red will tolerate -15°F, so it will need winter covering. Fredonia can get over-vigorous and thus won't mature. Canadice makes tight clusters in which the interior grapes crack causing spoilage, so harvest promptly. Diseases: Grapes are susceptible to Crown Gall following winter injury. "Grape hoe" disease is common where canes are buried and uncovered. Sod will kill grapes quickly, mulches can be used, Young vines tend to be more cold tolerant than bearing age vines. 'Windbreaks are recommended. Quackgrass remains the biggest cultural problem. High tensile fence wire was recommended for its low cost for trellises. Number 9 galvanized wire can be used as a bottom wire for extra strength.

An information packet was provided for participants and extra, copies nay be available. Contact: John Harker, Highmoor Farm, Monmouth 04259. John set up this meeting and needs to be thanked and encouraged for his work on grapes. He is independently funding plantings at the research station. Show your support and acknowledge your interest! John would like to learn of who's growing what in the state, so drop him a bunch of lines and a buck or two. Credit also goes to Brad Ronco for inspiring this meeting and for preparing two meaty grape articles for the MOFGA paper. Brad has a variety of vines for sale at $1.00/each. Contact him at: RFC 1 Box 460, Hallowell 04347.

And finally, for sheer foolishness, play the "grape game"! Insert grapes under upper and lower lips—just to see what your ancestors might have looked like! First one to "laugh out their grapes" loses. Winner gets free pass to "Planet of the Grapes". Try not to get Concord.

UPDATES

AMERICAN CHESTNUT: There is a grove of these beauties in Rockport's (not Rockland) Harkness Preserve, maintained by the Nature Conservancy. Mature trees can also be found in Cape Elizabeth, Albion, Vassalboro and Liberty. Do you know the location of any more of these trees? Do you know of anyone actively working vith them? Please let us know. *See sources listed elsewhere.

KOREAN PINE; Chris Marshall asks: "Does anyone have experience growing Pinus koraiensis?" I am gathering information for a manual on the Korean Pine and its cultivation and I'd appreciate any first or second-hand bits of knowledge, references to other people who know. Contact Chris—c/o Unity College.

STEVE ERICKSON sends the following information on NUT PINES:
Bird predation of seed beds may be significant. Early planting should reduce pilfering. Jays are responsible fa-seed dispersal of some species and may be responsible for larger nut siae selection in pinon pine. All 20 amino acids are found in 2 of the pinon pines. Orchards of Siberian Stone Pine, Pinus siberica are being harvested in Siberia for oil and livestock feed. Actnidia kolomikta climbs these trees in the native forests. See sources listed elsewhere.

HONEYLOCUST: Steve Erickson offers the following tips for sprouting honeylocust seed: Boil water (9 times the volume of the seed). Pour hot (not boiling) water over seeds and let sit overnight. These seeds should then visibly swell and can be planted. Re-treat any seeds that don't swell. Germination should begin immediately and no stratification is necessary. Note: This method will also work on Robinia, but not on Caragana.

TREE TRAVELS
It started put as a typical fall day in Industry, Maine, until we collected 6 bushels of Black Walnuts from a single tree! A week before, several bushels had been gathered and in the ensuing weeks a total of 12 bushels were scavenged. That's pretty good for a generic tree! There was nothing exceptional about the nut quality, but don't let anyone tell you you can't grow Black Walnuts in Maine! A trip to South Paris ended that fruitful day with a visit to two Manchurian Walnut trees. These yielded a scant amount in comparison a ½ bushel each, but the nut shape and cracking quality of one deservedly gets the name "Black Pecan". Duane and Shana Hanson shared that day and the experiences. They've stratified these nuts in their root cellar and should have them available at the Scionwood Exchange. We hope you'll plant some of these seeds and ideas with others and share your experiences.

KIWI KAPERS
Following a tip of hardy kiwi in western Connecticut—I had some friends stop to collect fruit on their way up here. The fruit arrived in time for display at the Common Ground Fair. These were intended to be used for seed...there weren't many; nevertheless, I chanced a taste. Quite bad, enough to quell my excitement. I had sampled one that wasn't ripe! Such punishment for gluttony. Actually, those fruit weren't the attraction I had expected and yet they served to be extremely useful. Craig Greene, botanist at C.O.A. had stopped by the booth and casually remarked Actnidia arguta (these hardy kiwis) grow all over Bar Harbor! Well, thanks to those few fruit and Craig, I was later to get a good taste of these Kiwi cousins, and they're quite flavorful! Maybe we can have a taste testing party next year. Please scour the Plant Profile for more information on these Actnidia arguta plants.

PLANT PROFILE
Common name: Hardy Kiwi, soft date, juicy date, wild fig, Siberian gooseberry, bower Actnidia, Tara Vine, Yang-Tao.
Genus species: Actnidia arguta.
Origin: Northeast Asia.
Minimum temperature range: -30 F, perhaps lower.
Distribution: Primarily as ornamental, in U.S. Grows wild in Asia, bordering or in the forests
Plant Habit: A climbing vine.
Life span: c. 60 years and no decline in yields.
Growth rate: Rapid.
Size: Up to 100 ft. tall.
Soil tolerance: Prefer moist, rich soil.
Light Tolerance: Prefers full sun, will tolerate some shade.
Drought tolerance: Good when older, needs regular watering when young.
Ease of transplanting: Not difficult, fibrous, shallow root system.
Propagation: Stratify seed; layering; rooted cuttings.
Flowering period: June.
Pollination: Insects or wind. Dioecious.
Fruiting period: Late Sept-early Oct.
Fruit bearing age: 3-4 years (cuttings)
Fruit size: Grape-sized, clusters of 10 or more common.
Fruit color: Lime green flesh; green, smooth, edible skin.
Fruit flavor: Luscious.
Pests: None known!!!
Problems: Tends to be vigorous, needs sturdy trellis; 5-10 male plants for every female plant when produced from seed.
Varieties & sources: Triple Brook Nur.; 37 Middle Rd., Southampton, MA 01073.
Lawyer Nur., Rt 2 Bx 95, Plains, MT 59859.
Alexanders Nur., Box 309, Middleboro, MA, 02346.
Edible Landscaping, 2519 Cool Spring Rd., Adelphi, MD 20783 (6 var. ).
Northwoods Nur., 28696 S. Cramer Rd., Molalla, OR 97038.
ITCIUSA, Rt 1 Gravel Switch, KY 40328.
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130.
Researchers:
Dan Sorensen, RD 2 Bx 2028, Russel, PA 16345.
Dan Milbacker-VA Truck & Orn, Res. Station, 144 Diamond Springs Rd, Vir. Beach, VA 23455.
E.M.Meader, 43 Meaderboro Rd., Rochester, NH 03867.
Michael Pilarski, PO Box 1064, Tonaaket, WA 98855.
References: Propagation Methods for Uncommon Perennial Fruit. $6— ITCIUSA.
1984 TIPSY-Actnidia Arguta The Cold Hardy Relative of the Kiwi-fruit.
Ed Goodell. Pomona-The Quarterly of The North- Am. Fruit Explorers, has many articles relating to hardy kiwi culture and is fun to read. $5. sub. c/o Mary Kurle 10 S. 055 Madison St., Hinsdale, IL 60521.
Area vines:
Bar Harbor, various parts of Mount Desert & possibly other coastal towns. Appears to have been brought in during the 1930's (?) as an ornamental. Estate plantings probably have spread. COA campus has several fruiting vines. One by the B.H. post office. Also throughout Acadia Park.
Harvest methods: Train on arbor.
Food value: About 300mg/100gms of vitamin C; possible substitute for grapes.
Edible parts: Fruit.
Fruit uses: Fresh or died; wine. Possible yields: Up to 100 lbs./vine.
Storage: 3-4 months when refrigerated.
Forage value: Fruit—poultry??
Seed/Cuttings: Stratify seeds in damp peat 110 days in refrigerator; should germinate in 2 weeks. Hardwood cuttings taken just before spring growth may be planted immediately with about 50% success.
Contact person: Once again, I elect to coordinate any exchanges of plant material...at least until others get a taste of these, (ed.)
Notes: Dan Sorensen believes that these plants will eventually become as common as grapes in the home orchard and may even become an important commercial crop. He thinks the flavor is better than the store type. There needs to be one consistent name for the plant, bower-berry ... has been sugested, what's your favorite?
For more information: Hardy Kiwi Packet containing copies of the above references... 8 pages, $1, c/o M.T.C.A.
CARE AND MAINTAINANCE OF ACTNIDIA ARGUTA... $1,.25, from Edible Landscaping Nursery
ACTNIDIA ENTHUSIASTS NEWSLETTER... $1.50/ issue PO Box 1064 Tonasket, WA. 98855

GRANNY SMITHS:
There's some interest and speculation on growing this variety locally. Hilltop Nursery, located in southwestern Michigan records picking dates of November 10-15th! That's 2-5 weeks after their next latest ripening variety, Newtown Pippin (Yellow Newtown), a possible substitute, which ripens late October. Don't rule out Granny Smith entirely for your orchard. Researchers at MacDonald College in Quebec have discovered that four apples per tree, hung high at pink stage are useful for monitoring plum curculio. Maybe New Zealanders will find a similar use for Maine blueberries.........

WINTER NELIS PEAR:
Very good flavor. Keep, ship, and sell well from Christmas to March. Very difficult to grow in the nursery. Unmanageable in the orchard with lily-shaped tops. Productive—usually needs thinning. Bears early and almost annually. Tolerates various soils. Nearly as immune to blight as any European pear. Old wood on trees thickly set with small short spurs. About the latest to leaf out of their kind. No better winter pear for commercial or home use.

This profile was extracted from THE PEARS OF NEW YORK U.P..Hedrick 1921 635 pages. Included are about 80 mouth-watering plates of leading varieties and their descriptions. A host of minor varieties are described too. This is a useful starting point for cataloging the existing varieties in Maine and is available at the State Library. (A complimentary edition THE APPLES OF NEW YORK was stolen last year!) With a camera and a central collection point, SOMEONE could record and verify our remaining treasures. A few preservation orchards scattered around the state would serve to keep these alive. OK——We Can Begin This Year——Who wants to HELP??? Funding MAY be available. Please WRITE.

HELP WANTED:
Your ideas and comments are always appreciated but what we need right now are sow committed people to tackle a few projects.
It's highly probable that we can start a TREE SEED NETWORK by this fall. This would involve collecting local tree seed and coordinating a group order on commercially available seed. Sources for selling surplus seed could be checked into. Proper stratification and growing instructions would enhance the value of these seeds. Seeds could be made available at either a fall meet or the annual scion exchange. Some seeds mail easily. Wyatt Courtemauche has volunteered. Contact him at: North Country Permaculture, Star Route Box 43, Blue Hill 04614. We can talk more about this at the exchange.

We would also benefit from a FALL FRUIT SAMPLER. As we begin to uncover bearing-age trees of some of the obscure varieties—it would be very worthwhile to get together and TASTE some of these. Anything short of a bellyache would be welcomed. Several fall dates would help to sample the range of fruits in their prime. We need a coordinator. Who can do it??

Pending what develops at this year's scion swap, we may schedule an IDEA EXCHANGE for/the fall. Show up with Thoughts. Only minor interest in a PERMACULTURE WORKSHOP last year. What's a good excuse for not having one this year? MOFGA might fund this. I'd attend —— WHO else?

An Aroostock county trip is in the works for early April. I'll be traveling with Will Bonsall of the Scatterseed Project to collect heirloom seed and scions. If you know of any contacts that can help us, please reply before then. We plan to go door to door and leave handouts of our efforts. Meanwhile bug your neighbors or grandparents about these timeless varieties. Get some planted and contact Will of your preservation efforts. He has some real gems to share. Scatterseed Project, RFD 1 Box 121, Farmington 04938.

EXCHANGE PAGE

This page is noticeably lacking the real valuable swaps that can happen. Please submit your requests for future editions.

APIOS AMERICANA.... I have access to some local tubers which I can share. Please note—some people find the smell of the blossoms objectionable and the climbing habit of the plant obnoxious.—ed.

FRUIT FARM GETS THE HOOF......U MASS at Amherst has an abandoned fruit research farm. About 30 odd pear trees remain and are still bearing—some quite nicely, with good yields of market-quality fruit. There's a whole orchard of apples, a few plum thickets, and a host of small fruit that graces what is now an equestrian trail circuit. If you have any interest in this dying resource, or if you can get down there for fruit or scions, please let me know. I'm trying to learn what is still there and can report of future developments as they happen.—ed

PLEASE NOTE Stone fruit production will be terminated this year at Highmoor Farm. Budget cuts and maintenance costs are the contributing factors;. A new program should begin again by 1987 and will include the most promising varieties.


SCION WOOD EXCHANGE

SUNDAY, MARCH 31st. 12noon-5pm. UNITY COLLEGE in Unity Maine. Below is a tentative schedule of this year's fruitwood and fruit-fan turnout: 12 noon: Arrive with bundled and labeled scions, nuts, seeds, information and ideas and set them out in hallway,
1:00pm: INFORMAL MEETING to discuss what has been happening and what can happen with the Alliance. We'll try to schedule other activities for the year based on participation at this meeting. Send ideas if you can't make it.
1;30pm: GRAFTING WORKSHOP. A demonstration of the whip and tongue method—possibly "hands-on"—bring a razor-sharp knife.
2:30pm: TREE CROP SLIDE SHOW, A look at some useful trees for the Northeast.
3:30pm: GRAFTING WORKSHOP. A demonstration of side (or veneer) grafting.
4:30pm: IDEA EXCHANGE. Last chance to swap ideas, make connections and new friends.
5:30pm: For any diehards that still want to hang around and talk trees—a potluck supper (sorry, no facilities, please bring a cold dish...or visit the Tavern downstairs for sandwiches or pizza). Since this may be our only get-together, here's a chance to socialize!
NEW THIS YEAR! We are planning to have on hand a sampler of grafting supplies, tools and rootstock at low prices.
REMEMBER: Please label your scionwood by variety and make sure it is fresh as possible. Keep wood cool and moist by wrapping in damp paper towels and plastic and refrigerate. Pruners and labels or tape are helpful. Bring a youngster or an oldster. We can probably come up with some activities for the kids. Please pass the word.
ALSO: ... Please feel free to share wood of any variety you like, even those you cannot identify. Just include an accurate description of the fruit; ripening date, distinguishing characteristics, etc. Some real gems lurk out there. We can work at identifying these later.
AND; .... If you can't make it to the exchange, we will be storing leftover scions. Write us with your needs.
FINALLY; Keep a lookout throughout this growing season for selections for NEXT YEAR'S exchange!

DIRECTIONS; From the south, take Rt 9/202 to Unity. The college is on the right just before the village. Enter campus at top of hill and go to the furthest and largest building (gym). Exchange will be held upstairs on the left. There will be signs to guide you so look for them.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Call Chris Marshall (evenings only, please). 589-4632


SOURCES OF TREES AND TREE SEEDS

Will Bonsall, RFD 1 Box 121, Farmington 04938. American Chestnut, Hazelnut and other food and conservation seedlings.
Mark Fulford. RR 1 Box 76C, Monroe 04951. Honeylocust, Buartnut, old apple varieties. Will also do custom propagating.
Gavin Keener. Norkingdom Gardens, Old Post Rd., Bowdoinham 04008. Has extensive collection of native woody plants and seeds. Send SASE for list.
Louis Lipovsky. RFD 1 Gfaurch Rd., Brunswick 04011. 725-7897. American Chestnut seedlings, Azaelas, Highbush Blueberries and nut trees.
Barbara Ribodoux. RD 2 Box 334, union 04862. Contact person fcr seed and plant naterial from Arnold Arboretum.
G.P. Welles Thurber. Box 304, Rockport 04856. American Chestnut, seedlings.
Frosty Hollow Nursery. PO Box 53, Langley, WA 98260. Stratified seed of Korean Nut Pine. 1 oz (45-60 seeds) $3.00; ¼oz packet $1.00.
Grimo Nut Nursery. RR 3 Lakeshore Rd., Niagra-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada L0S 1J0. American Chestnut seedlings, Potted, grafted Korean Pine trees; 6-10", should bear in 4-5 years. $10.00.
Dutch Mountain Nursery. 7984 K. 48th St., Augusta, MI 49012. American Chestnut seedlings.
Oikos. 721 Fletcher, Kalaniazoo, MI 49007. American Chestnut seedlings. Gellatly & Douglas strains.
Stronghold Inc. Rt 1, Dickerson, MD 20753. Blight resistant seed and seedlings of American Chestnut.
APPALACHIAN WILDFLOWER NURSERY. Rt 1 Box 275A, Reedsville, PA 17084. Plant treasures from around the world is an understatement. Owner Don Hackenberry has done his homework and fieldwork. A wealth of infer nation on native and non-native plants is crammed into a 20 page supplement to his listing of plants. Hardy kiwi is listed this year along with many ornamentals. Send a dollar for the lowdown on his botanical gems.

Ida Red apples have almost the vitamin C equivalent of an orange and will stay juicy and crunchy til May in a root cellar. This late season ripener comes from a cross of Jonathan and Wagner and was first introduced in 1942. Commercially it has become quite popular.

TOOLS

Do you know a source of good quality, reasonably priced, non-gourmet orchard, forestry and gardening tools? I am considering offering a pre-order selection of useful hand tools, possibly this fall. I am particularly interested in local sources of these tools, and in encouraging small enterprises to develop. What would you pay for a custom hornbeam axe or maul handle? Or a reconditioned and resharpened crosscut saw? How valuable would access to locally produced harvesting and processing equipment be to you? Could you co-operate in this venture??? Please submit any ideas or comments soon. Thanks.—ed.

STEAM POWER PRODUCTS: PO Box 5982, Tallahassee, FL 32301. This seems like a reputable small business out to please the customer. Purchase components separately and create your own engine or buy their finished models.

ZIP-ZTOVES NORTH: PO Box 612, Union 04862. These lightweight outdoor cookstoves burn various native fuels (bark, pine cones, wood chips, etc.) very efficiently. Battery operated fan creates a blow torch effect. 5 models, from $10-$30.00.

ORGANIZATIONS

NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION: Kenneth Bauman, Treasurer; 9870 S. Palmer Rd.; New Carlisle, OH 45344. Membership, $13.00/yr. includes copy of the Annual Report, membership list, quarterly newsletter and invitation to annual meeting. Anyone have back copies they would like to loan???

NUXALK FOOD AND NUTRITION PROGRAM HEALTH CLINIC; A government program to reteach native people about tradi-tional food is meeting with much success among young and old community members. For more information contact: Kuxalk Food & Nutrition Program Health Clinic, PO Box 93, Bella Coola, BC VOT 1CO CANADA.

BOOKS

ORNAMENTALS FOR EATING—Marc Podems, Brenda Bortz. Research & Development Report #2, Rodale Press Inc. 1975. 67 pgs.——out of print!, but it shouldn't be! This appears to be one of Rodale's finer publications, unfortunately, they do not realize this fact. It covers a wide range of minor fruit and nuts, some not applicable to the Northeast. Presented in a very readable and thought-provoking format. "Why do many Americans grow flowering trees and shrubs that don't produce edible foods when they could surround their homes with equally attractive ones providing nutritious, tasty and unusual foodstuffs?" begins the Preface. "What about the front yard?" they query. 'What about THIS BOOKLET?," I ask. There is interest at several levels to develop a handbook such as this for Maine. If you have appropriate information on "edible ornamentals" please respond. A single booklet like this would do so much to promote the ideas of the sensible landscape that it isn't worth discussing further here. Let's get going on this! We have most of this information at our fingertips. Putting it in this usable format would place dooryard fruit in the grasp of the average homeowner.

THE ART OF FIELD SKETCHING—Claire Walker Leslie. Prentice Hall. 1984. 190 pgs. paperback. Put away your camera and study nature with an observant eye. This book contains some beautifully simple observations. A collection of amateur and professional illustrations will help you to spot techniques and should provide some inspiration! A field journal is empty without sketches. Louis Agassiz said "study from nature, not from books". This book is a rare exception.

A HANDBOOK FOR TERRESTRTAL HABITAT EVALUATION IN CENTRAL MISSOURI—U.S. Dept. of the Interior Fish & Wildlife Service Resource Publication #133. 1980. 150 pgs. This report of the animal/plant relationships occurring in a specific bioregion is a prime tool for evaluating a site. Seems like a permacultural assessment guide could be made along similar lines. Substitute domestic fowl for wild turkey; rabbits for Eastern Cottontail, etc. Also useful for determining how your tree crops rate on the menu of wildlife.

THE CLIMATE NEAR THE GROUND. Geiger. 1959 494pgs. Technical, but not highly confusing reference on microclimates. An excellent text for landscape and city designers. Examines how topography influences and is influenced by weather patterns.

TROPICAL LEGUMES. Resources for the Future—National Academy of Sciences. Washington DC. 1979. 330pgs. Applicable for more than just points south of Kittery, this text examines a number of species citing potential uses, limitations, and research needs. Gives a short account of Apios, Honeylocust plus only a few other North American species. Recommended for its ability to clearly illustrate the need to develop root crops, pulses, fruit, forage and fast-growing species; what's working, and who's working with it—for an area already teeming with plants. A temperate zone edition would be most welcomed.

PLANT A TREE. A Working Guide to Greening America. Michael Weiner. 1975. 277pgs. $7.00. This book may help you get started in planting and maintaining trees. Perhaps it's greatest asset though, are pictures of some magnificent trees that speak of their influence on the land, the culture and the respect they must have conveyed.

MUSHROOM; The Journal of Wild Mushrooming. Box 3156 University Station; Moscow, ID 83843. Quarterly. $12/yr.

TREES: GUARDIANS OF THE SOIL: Donald Nichol. 1983. 28pgs $3.50. Someone's speaking up for the trees! Their beauty, function, intelligence and relationship with man are presented as an effort to inspire.

ELDERBERRY GROWING IN NY STATE; Roger Way^Extension Bulletin 1117, NY State Agricultural Station, Geneva, NY. 1972

VIRUS DISEASES AND NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF STONE FRUIT AS HANDBOOK #437; 1976 $7.50. Stock #0100-02691.

SOLAR AGE OR ICE AGE? BULLETIN. - THE SURVIVAL OF CIVILIZATION: Crisis Report; Weaver. 1983. 86pgs. How remineralization (liming) of the earth will prevent glaciation. Copy available for loan—ask!

TREES OF THS NORTHEAST! A free coloring book. FROM TINY SEEDS. Life Story of a Pine Seed. From; Corporate Communications, Room 43-85, I.P.Co., 77 W 45th St. NY,NY 10036.

THE BOOK OF EDIBLE NUTS; Frederic Rosengarten Jr., 1984. 409pgs. $37.00. 42 Kinds of nuts, seeds and beans of the world are examined. Cola nuts anyone?

CORRECTION: The Beach Plum. No. 422, John S. Bailey, MASS. AG. EXP. STATION, Amherst, MA, 1944.

THE INTERNATIONAL PSRMACULTURE SEED YEARBOOK—TIPSY, Box 202, Orange, MA. 01364 $10.00 The 1985 edition will include articles on blight resistant American Chestnuts; oaks; acid rain; an expanded resources section; and more.

An AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM may have contributed to the rise of ancient Mayan prosperity around 700 AD. A shift to a monoculture of maize predated Spanish subjugation. A return to an agronomic system of tree, shrub and herbaceous crops might add to stability in a politically volatile area of the world today. These ideas were presented at the 7th annual Ethnobiology Conference by Fred Wiseman of MIT.

EPITHET/or ELEGY

RAIN
I fear thee
That once comforting song
Now strikes anxiety
Intoning a corrosive apprehension
These lingering fogs
Of late November
One time fair, crafty & mysterious-
Now seen insidious.
pH approaching crude acid
Biting into all New England forests.
Simultaneously.
In broad measure
Routing mountain crests
Slowly dissolving the spruce and fir,
Destroying the mycorhiza and soil fauna.
Whereby, the fragile biosphere collapses
A fourth great lung no longer
Capable of drawing a breath!
These forsaken lands;
Deridden lakes and stunted forests;
Weak impoverished soils;
Bleak and carbon-clotted skies;
Epithetio of this boastful & prosperous epoch.
—Gavin Keeney.

THANK YOUS

Production Assistant: Lainie Foss
Support team for past issues: Beth Schuman, Carol Begin, and the staff and copier machine at Johnny's Selected Seeds.

Acid rain continues to be on people's minds and on local vegetation. White pine, Jack Pine, Trembling Aspen and White Birch have been found to be most susceptible. As calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium are leached from soils aluminum, manganese, iron, mercury, cadmium and lead are becoming more soluble. Perhaps more importantly, as pH levels drop, so do populations of rhizobia. What can be done? "MYCARRHIZAS"; by R. Jackson; Edward Arnold Pub.; 1983. 64 pgs. $9.00—may contain clues. Masanobu Fukuoka—author of "ONE STRAW REVOLUTION" is convinced tree decline begins in the roots; the roots of societies with misplaced human values. For technical information on the impact of acid rain; "ACIDIC DEPOSITION and FORESTS" is available for $4.50 from the Society of American Foresters; 5400 Grosvenor Lane; Bethesda, MD 20814.

CALENDAR

FEDCO TREES SURPLUS SALE: April 19 & 20th. FEDCO Warehouse (verify with John Bunker 993-2837), Reynolds Rd., Winslow. A selection of fruit and nut trees will be on hand. This can become a landmark tree day—as interest and participation dictates. Contact John Bunker, Box 340, Palermo 04350. (phone # above) for details, or with ideas of how to make this a festive and educational occasion.
HOME LANDSCAPE WORKSHOP: AUGUSTA: April 20 & May 4th; ROCKLAND: April 27 & May 11th; BATH: April 12 & May 3rd. UMA sponsored course taught by Ann Richardson. 10-hour course, $35.00, sign up soon. Public Service Office; UMA; Augusta 04330 (phone: 622-7131).
GRAFTING WORKSHOPS: Late April or early May. Contact HOME, Orland 04472 for details. also: April 21, 2pm at Khadigar Farm in Industry. (Mailing address Box 121, Farmington 04938) featuring cleft grafting.
MEDICINAL HERB WALK: May 25th, Camden. Sponsored by Maine Environmental Education Assoc. (MEEA), PO Box 2447, Augusta 04330. (phone: 236-2408 or 236-3006) for details. $5.00 for this workshop, other workshops scheduled too. Leader—Deb Soule.
SCANDINAVIAN FORESTRY TOOL DEMONSTRATION: Should occur early this summer. Sponsored by Maine State Forest Service. (Your Co-operative Extension agent should know where and when.)
MAY 20-24th IS ARBOR WEEK!!!!
POLICY AND SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION
$ 3.00 - Get's you a. subscription to this NEWSLETTER which will be issued each Spring and Fall. Barter or swaps acceptable. Donations, ideas, moral support and contributions are welcomed. Back issues available —75¢.
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******* IMPORTANT *******
SCION WOOD EXCHANGE MARCH 31st Noon - 5 Unity College !!!! Details Inside.

This newsletter digitized by Tom Roberts, 3-Mar-2011.